1. What is the free rider problem?
2. How do interest groups overcome the free rider problem?
3. What are selective incentives (aka selective benefits) and why are they critical to the success of interest groups?
4. Define the following terms and provide an example of each: solidary incentives/benefits, purposive incentives/benefits, material incentives/benefits.
5. According to the book, what are some criticism of interest group pluralism?
6. How do we distinguish between polls that are well done and those that are poorly done?
7. What types of mistakes in the construction of polls leads to error?
8. How are political parties and interest groups similar? How are they different?
9. What is political or party polarization? According to the book, what is a major cause of political polarization in Congress?
10. In the average American presidential election, approximately what percentage of the voting age population turns out to vote? How is this similar to (or different from) average midterm elections and local elections?
11. According to the textbook, what is descriptive representation and why is it important?
12. Which states hold the first caucus and first primary of the presidential season?
13. Survey results find that 47% of Americans support banning flavored tobacco products (which are often marketed to juveniles), with a +/- 3% margin of error, 95% level of confidence, using a nationwide, random sample. What conclusions can we draw?
14. If a citizen votes for a Republican for president and a Democrat for senator, he or she has engaged in what behavior?
15. In a proportional representation electoral system, how are seats in the legislature allocated after an election?
16. How does the United States select presidents? How does the Electoral College work?
17. According to the book, interest groups are permitted to spend as much money as they want on issue advocacy during a campaign season, as long as they _______________.
18. What is the gender gap, in reference to American elections?
19. Why does the United States have a 2-party system?
20. Which groups of people are most likely to vote, and which are least likely to vote? Why does it matter that some groups are less likely to vote?
21. How often in US history has the winner of the Electoral College lost the popular vote?
22. What is political socialization? What are agents of socialization and what are the most common agents of socialization?
23. What is the difference between prospective voting and retrospective voting?
24. When did women secure the right to vote in the United States? Why did it take so long for women to secure suffrage rights?
25. When did African American men legally secure the right to vote in the US? When did this right to vote become safe and accessible to black voters?
26. According to the book, which three types of factors influence the decisions of voters at the polls?
27. What are the 3 branches of government, and what are their primary jobs? How do separation of powers, checks & balances, and federalism help distribute power in the American political system?
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