Assisted Suicide

week three assignment. Articulate a specific dilemma in a situation faced by a particular person based on that topic. The situation can be real or fictional.

check week three assignment attachment for instructions

ETHC445 Week 7 Assignment Rubric – 100 pts.

ETHC445 Week 7 Assignment Rubric – 100 pts.
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAssignment Content
60 pts

Addresses all aspects of the assignment applying professional knowledge, and research regarding weekly concepts.

51 pts

Addresses most aspects of the assignment applying professional knowledge, and research regarding weekly concepts.

45 pts

Addresses some aspects of the assignment applying professional knowledge, and research regarding weekly concepts.

36 pts

Minimally addresses the assignment, applying professional knowledge, and research regarding weekly concepts.

0 pts

No effort

 

60 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeProfessional Communication
15 pts

Presents information using clear and concise language in an organized manner (minimal errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).

12 pts

Presents information in an organized manner (some errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).

11 pts

Presents information using understandable language but is somewhat disorganized (some errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).

9 pts

Presents information that is not clear, logical, professional or organized to the point that the reader has difficulty understanding the message (numerous errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and/or punctuation).

0 pts

No effort

 

15 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSource Integration
20 pts

Paper includes reference to 5 scholarly sources and masterfully integrates the sources into the essay.

17 pts

Paper includes reference to 4 scholarly sources and integrates them effectively throughout the essay.

15 pts

Paper includes reference to 3scholarly sources but does not properly integrate the sources.

12 pts

Paper includes reference to 1-2 scholarly source and integrates it effectively in the essay

0 pts

Paper does not make reference to a scholarly sources.

 

20 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA Format
5 pts

Paper meets all source requirements, and is properly formatted in APA style throughout (i.e. title page, spacing, font, in-text citations and references.)

4 pts

Paper meets all source requirements, and is mostly properly formatted in APA style (i.e. title page, spacing, font, in-text citations and references.)

3 pts

Paper meets all source requirements, and is somewhat properly formatted in APA style (i.e. title page, spacing, font, in-text citations and references.)

2 pts

Paper fails to meet source requirements and/or is improperly formatted in APA style throughout

0 pts

No effort

 

5 pts
Total Points: 100

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Return to the topic you chose in the week three assignment. Articulate a specific dilemma in a situation faced by a particular person based on that topic. The situation can be real or fictional.

· Summarize the dilemma.

· Define any needed key terms associated with the dilemma.

· Analyze the conflicts or controversies involved in the dilemma.

Revise and rewrite based on any feedback you received in your previous draft (week three). Reference and discuss any professional code of ethics relevant to your topic such as the AMA code for doctors, the ANA code for nurses, etc.  State whether and how your chosen topic involves any conflicts between professional and familial duties or conflicts between loyalty to self and loyalty to a community or nation.

What in your view is the most moral thing for that person to do in that dilemma? Why is that the most moral thing? Use moral values and logical reasoning to justify your answer

Next, apply the following:

· Aristotle’s Golden Mean to the dilemma

· Utilitarianism to the dilemma

· Natural Law ethics to the dilemma

Which of those three theories works best ethically speaking? Why that one?

Why do the other two not work or not work as well?

Is it the same as what you said is the most moral thing earlier? Why or why not?

Use the 5 articles from your annotated bibliography to support your answers. (Additional academic scholarly research from the past 5 years can be included as well.)

Include a reference page at the end of your paper in APA format that includes your bibliography with the annotations removed and any other sources used in your final paper.

1

 

5

 

 

 

 

Annotated Bibliography

 

Olawoyin Ibitoye

Chamberlain University

ETHC445N-60355

Professor Richards

11/28/2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 1

Assisted suicide is among the most controversial topics in the world today, especially in medicine. The ethics of this practice are directly before the public eye, and the fixed media attention and growing concern over the control of life has generated intense ethical considerations about the legalization of the processes. Public discussion has focused on the longing for control over the means of death and timing amid the warnings concerning the possible injury or abuse of the long-standing prohibitions about assisting suicide in the community or being directly involved in another person’s death.

Concurring with the public debate but separate from it in numerous ways is the discussion of assisted suicide in the medical field. Here, the community asserts that the practice is wrong and should not be allowed for individuals, despite the situations involved in the particular cases (Sulmasy, et al., 2016). Others might support that some cases are exceptional. The communal views on the ethics of assisted suicide have not much relevance in the contemporary world. The issue of autonomy for individuals to close whether to live is also a center of debate in communal ethics because the world is increasingly accepting death as a mandatory natural occurrence, hence considering the right of choosing to live and die.

The most significant communal ethics about assisted suicide is religion. The world of religion does not support the concept of assisted suicide because the teachings view life as a sacred gift from God that should be preserved, and only God can take and give life. Most of the personal ethics surrounding the issue are embedded in religion, as people would rather follow teachings than do things based on their autonomy or independence. In addition, individuals believe that there is no cost of life; therefore, it is wrong to take other people’s lives.

While the arguments of assisted suicide come from a strong ethical position, others believe that assisted suicide is ethical especially depending on the situation. Individuals supporting assisted suicide argue that sometimes it is troubling for patients to go through so much pain without any hope of getting better. Therefore, assisted suicide is justified because it relieves individuals of suffering. Some patients are diagnosed and suffer from very painful medical conditions that do not give them hope of recovery, therefore in such a situation, proposers that assisted suicide is justified. In addition, the main objective of medicine is to relieve patients from pain and suffering from various medical conditions. Therefore, proposers hold that ending a patient’s pain and suffering through Letha ingestion is ethically acceptable and the most humane way of ending their lives.

The process of assisted suicide considers the consent of individuals, and they willingly ingest the medication meant to kill them. Therefore, the process is ethically justified because it shies away from any form of coercion or force from the medical personnel and their families. Assisted suicide is acceptable in more ways due to how the patients die than killing them or other means of suicide that might be considered unacceptable and inhumane. Overall, proposers of assisted suicide deem it justified based on the procedures, the patient’s consent, and the element of ending suffering for patients with severe medical conditions.

Question 2

According to Kant, an agent who ends their own life violates the moral law; therefore, suicide and the extension of assisted suicide are morally wrong. If killing is wrong, then voluntary killing is also wrong. In forbidding and speaking against assisted suicide or euthanasia, Kant conflates respect for people and persons and perceives the issue of killing one person as a process of undermining the element of personhood (Tiensuu, 2018). There is no way individuals under the Kant ideology can justify self-killing and assisted suicide because they contradict the moral law. Even when other Kantians adhere to the doctrine, they reject it. Kant perceives individuals killing themselves because they are ill is wrong. Kantian ethics mandate that individuals should do the right thing even though they produce bad results. Therefore, despite the expected results, Kantian ethics rule against the practice of assisted suicide, and individuals should preserve and uphold the value of life despite their circumstances.

Question 3

Emanuel, E. J., Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B. D., Urwin, J. W., & Cohen, J. (2016). Attitudes and practices of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Jama, 316(1), 79-90.

The article focuses on the legalization of assisted suicide and euthanasia. Therefore, it explores the attitudes and practices and the legal status of euthanasia and assisted suicide. After conducting interviews with physicians and reviewing death certificates in Belgium and Netherlands, the study discovered that countries including Belgium, Luxembourg, Canada, Columbia, and the Netherlands could legally carry out assisted suicide and euthanasia. The United States allows assisted suicide but not euthanasia. Overall, the study concluded that assisted suicide and euthanasia are increasingly legalized, although they are rare and mostly apply to cancer patients. I agree with the idea that nations are legalizing assisted therapy because they quickly acknowledge that some cases warrant such extreme measures, especially for cancer patients. “A large portion of patients receiving physician-assisted suicide in Oregon and Washington reported being enrolled in hospice or palliative care, as did patients in Belgium” (Emanuel et al., 2016). This article is important in identifying the legal and political points of view on assisted suicide.

Borasio, G. D., Jox, R. J., & Gamondi, C. (2019). Regulation of assisted suicide limits the number of assisted deaths. The Lancet, 393(10175), 982-983.

The article acknowledges that assisted suicide is increasingly popular. However, it states, “Regulation of assisted suicide limits the number of assisted deaths” (Borasio, Jox, & Gamondi, 2019). The article focuses on the Netherlands and Belgium, where the raters of assisted suicide are increasing because of its legalization. I agree that restricting the number of assisted suicides will help limit the prevalence of these types of death because individuals only do it. After all, it is legally acceptable. Instead, individuals should endure their conditions and have faith in medical assistance. This source helps me understand why the rates of assisted suicide have been increasing in some countries in recent times.

Shaw, D., Trachsel, M., & Elger, B. (2018). Assessment of decision-making capacity in patients requesting assisted suicide. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 213(1), 393-395.

The source takes a unique approach and states, “it is wrong to assume that patients suffering from mental health issues (including depression) cannot consent to assisted suicide” (Shawn, Trachsel, & Elger, 2018). Therefore, it focuses on the decision-making processes involved in the assisted suicide process and the exceptions involved. I do not agree with the article that mentally ill patients should make decisions concerning assisted suicide because they are incapacitated and not in the right mind for such complex decisions. The article has helped me understand a different point of view about mentally ill patients participating in assisted suicide, although I do not agree.

Rutledge, S., Komrad, M., Kyrillos, E., Lau, T., Leiva, R., Leong, R., … & Quinlan, J. (2019). Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are unethical acts. Medical World Journal, 34.

The study declares that assisted suicide is not ethically justified. “Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide are Unethical Acts.” The article states that “What is legal is not necessarily ethical” (Rutledge, et al., 2019). This means that the source does not support the practice despite being legalized in several countries and argues that patients do not know what it is like to be dead, although they willingly participate in assisted suicide. I agree with the source that assisted suicide is wrong. The source has helped me understand both sides of the justification of assisted suicide, although the conclusion is that it is not right.

Mishara, B. L. (2016). 27. The Right to Die and the Right to Live: Perspectives on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide. In Suicide in Canada (pp. 441-458). University of Toronto Press.

The source mainly focuses on assisted suicide and euthanasia in Canada. “In Canada, all deaths are classified according to a limited number of generally accepted categories, causes of death may be ‘natural,’ ‘accidental,’ ‘homicide” (Mishara, 2016). This is the outline for what is acceptable in Canada s a death. The source presents both sides of the argument for and against assisted suicide and euthanasia. I agree that every individual has their perspective about the issue, and the source was helpful for me to understand both sides of the argument.

 

References

Borasio, G. D., Jox, R. J., & Gamondi, C. (2019). Regulation of assisted suicide limits the number of assisted deaths. The Lancet, 393(10175), 982-983.

Emanuel, E. J., Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B. D., Urwin, J. W., & Cohen, J. (2016). Attitudes and practices of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Jama, 316(1), 79-90.

Mishara, B. L. (2016). 27. The Right to Die and the Right to Live: Perspectives on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide. In Suicide in Canada (pp. 441-458). University of Toronto Press.

Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education

Rutledge, S., Komrad, M., Kyrillos, E., Lau, T., Leiva, R., Leong, R., … & Quinlan, J. (2019). Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are unethical acts. Medical World Journal, 34.

Shaw, D., Trachsel, M., & Elger, B. (2018). Assessment of decision-making capacity in patients requesting assisted suicide. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 213(1), 393-395.

Sulmasy, D. P., Travaline, J. M., Mitchell, L. A., & Ely, E. W. (2016). Non-faith-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. The Linacre Quarterly, 83(3), 246-257.

Tiensuu, P. (2018, May). Life in Principle: Assisted Suicide and the Right to Life as a Fundamental Right. In Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy (Vol. 15, pp. 95-100).

Running Head: ASSISTED SUICIDE 1

 

ASSISTED SUICIDE 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assisted Suicide

Olawoyin Ibitoye

Professor Richards

ETHC445N-60355

Chamberlain university

11/14/2021

 

 

 

 

 

Assisted Suicide

The society has come to terms with the fact that the human life has a predetermined end which need not be preserved because a treatment might be in existence. This has sparked a mixed reaction both national and internationally on matters of any individual being able to determine the time and nature of their death. This sparked the interest of assisted suicide whereby an individual can choose death through assisted means for example by a medical practitioner. However, there are proponents and opponents of assisted suicide. The opponents are mostly Christians who argue that life is God given and only God can take away the life of a human being. The proponents however argue that if an individual is suffering and without any chances of survival or even being cured, then the individual should be allowed to make a choice of dying with assisted means.

The proponents argue that it is very bad to watch a suffering patient who does not have any hope of recovering. They give the following moral reasons for proposing assisted suicide; relief of suffering- the main aim of medicine has always been to relive the patient’s suffering from diseases and illnesses. They argue that relieving the suffering of a patient through lethal ingestion is humane and compassionate, if the patient is dying and the suffering is refractory. They also argue death through assisted means ensure death through a way that suicide by other means cannot (Dugdale et al., 2019). This assisted death also follows some rules which include the fact that the patient will be free of coercion and able to ingest the lethal medication themselves.

The opponents of the assisted suicide however argue in the following moral and ethical ways; suicide contagion-this argument states that if there is death by assisted means, there is likely to be more deaths by suicide regardless of whether the suicide is assisted or not. For instance, if a certain individual dies by assisted suicide means, then research shows that individuals with the same demographics with the one who just died are likely to commit suicide too. They also argue through the depression in advanced illnesses reason (Paterson, 2017). This explains that some patients who are in dire need of assisted deaths are often patients of cancer and depression. The opponents of assisted suicide argue that if a patient suffering from depression choses to under death through assisted means might have chosen the assisted suicide without the knowledge and consent of their real reasoning and die out of the effects of depression and stress.

Ethical Egoist view

Ethical egoist view on the assisted suicide would always argue against the assisted suicide because; they always propose that if any act does not benefit the doer, then it is not supposed to be done. But in this case, there is no clear cut line on who is the doer of the assisted suicide, is it the individual who is being assisted to die or the one assisting in the suicide. As such, there is no clear side that the ethical egoists take (Thames, 2018). This is because, if the doer in this context is the one assisting the suicide, then the ethical egoist will be against the assisted suicide because it does not benefit that particular individual but if the doer perceived in this context is the patient, then the ethical egoists would support it because the benefits of the act might be relieving pain on the patient. Therefore, the ethical egoists would always be neutral depending on the understanding of the issue.

 

 

Social Contract Ethicist view point

A Social Contrast Ethicist would have it that if anything that is being done is acceptable by all the human beings in that particular locality, and then it should be a question of doing it for the right purposes. For instance, the assisted suicide issue, for the social contrast ethicists, they would allow and accept it only and only if it is accordance with an agreement that establishes moral and political rules of behavior. So, if the assisted suicide is conducted in accordance to a certain social contrast, then people can live morally by our own choice and not because a divine being requires it. By this explanation, the social contract ethicist would take a neutral position, because their proposition or opposition is dependent on how the assisted suicide is conducted. To support their moral position of neutrality, the social contract ethicist would bring in the argument of the fact that what matters is not the assisted suicide itself but on how the assisted suicide is conducted.

Assisted suicide has a collision between personal obligations and national obligations. The national obligations include the state always acting in the best interests of the citizens. But personally, how would I allow my loved one go through assisted suicide? Assisted suicide might have positive effects on the patient who is experiencing the pain and might not fully recover or even recover at all, but how will the people left behind deal with it? The best course of action is always trying to put into consideration, the feelings of all the parties involved, that is, the individual who needs the assisted suicide and the kins of that particular person.

 

 

References

Dugdale, L. S., Lerner, B. H., & Callahan, D. (2019). Focus: Death: Pros and Cons of Physician Aid in Dying. The Yale journal of biology and medicine92(4), 747.

Paterson, C. (2017). Assisted suicide and euthanasia: a natural law ethics approach. Routledge.

Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

Thames, B. (2018). How Should One Live? An Introduction to Ethics and Moral Reasoning

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