Group paper assignment:
This is a group assignment paper of 1000 words in total. My part involves writing around (200 words) on National Health Service (NHS) drawbacks in a middle-income country. You can use a specific country or countries in examples.
Regarding references, I think 3-5 references may be appropriate for a 200-word paragraph/paragraphs, considering each point is referenced.
So, the main aim of the paper is proposing a case of why National Health Services model is appropriate for a middle-income country.
Below is the structure of the paper and all its parts just for reference.
Title: National Health Service healthcare financing module for a middle-income country
- Key strengths of the NHS in a middle-income country.
- NHS drawbacks in a middle-income country (My Part).
- How this module is ideal for a middle-income country.
- Recommendations and conclusion.
Below is the first 2 parts of the assignment written by my colleagues for reference and guidance on the structure and flow.
The National health services (NHS) aimed at the provision of quality primary care and prevention of illness enable countries to achieve the highest health metrics, such as life expectancy and reduced mortality (Schoen et al., 2008). Governments must ensure accessibility, affordability and acceptable quality for the entire population without discrimination (WHO, 2020). Therefore, good health and wellbeing is part of the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals (UNDP, 2020).
The middle-income countries can provide essential healthcare services and basic primary care in general by a combination of new financial systems, due to various their economic condition. Current health spending is about 6% of GDP on average. Also, except for individual Eastern European nations, middle-income countries rely on high out-of-pocket costs to fund their health systems (Okoroh et al., 2018).
NHS is a model based on tax-funded and government-managed health services. The government allocates the national insurance budget annually through the spending evaluation process. Like every other financial framework for wellbeing, the NHS is related to strengths and drawbacks, irrespective of a country’s economic category. The governments generally allocate substantial budgets for healthcare (Amado, 2018). The paper discusses how the NHS should implement from an economic viewpoint in terms of its benefits and drawbacks.
National health service key strengths
The National health service financing model integrates healthcare financing and the provision of healthcare services to the population on a universal basis, at no or minimal cost, eliminating financial barriers (Alraga, 2017). Furthermore, it achieves risk pooling at the highest degree, where out-of-pocket payment by patients is reduced to ensure financial protection against catastrophic health payments and equity in service use (O’Donnell et al., 2008).
The National health service financing model offers a broader revenue base than social insurance through taxation. In middle income countries, while most people cannot make significant insurance contributions, almost all of their governments are still able to raise the taxes needed to provide public goods and services, which helps to minimize distortions in particular sectors of the economy (World Bank, n.d.). Besides, with a limited budget, governments will be able to trade off or spend on other public health priorities, such as education or reducing poverty, as well as efficiently increasing money with low administration costs relative to the amount of money they raise (Appleby, 2013).
Most of the middle-income countries have a centralized decision-making system, thus allowing governments to be more efficient in addressing strategic health problems and to be effective in the management, planning, and formulation of different health programs and policies (Almalki et al., 2011).
Almalki, M., Fitzgerald, G. and Clark, M. (2011). Health care system in Saudi Arabia: An overview. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 17.
Alraga, S. (2017). Comparative Analysis of Three Different Health Systems Australian, Switzerland and Saudi Arabia. [online] Available at: https://primarycare.imedpub.com/comparative-analysis-of-three-different-healthsystems-australian-switzerland-and-saudi-arabia.php?aid=19323
Amadeo, K. (2018) Universal Health Care in Different Countries, Pros and Cons of Each. The Balance. Available at: https://www.thebalance.com/universal-health-care-4156211 [Accessed 26 Aug. 2020].
Appleby, J.(n.d.). Spending on health and social care over the next 50 years Why think long term? Available at: https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/field/field_publication_file/Spending%20on%20health%20…%2050%20years%20low%20res%20for%20web.pdf
O’Donnell, O., Doorslaer, E.V., Rannan, R.P. and Somanathan, A. (2008). Who Pays for Health Care in Asia? Journal of Health Economics ,27(2). PP. 460-475
Okoroh, J., Essoun, S., Seddoh, A., Harris, H., Weissman, J.S., Dsane-Selby, L. and Riviello, R. (2018) Evaluating the impact of the national health insurance scheme of Ghana on out of pocket expenditures: a systematic review. BMC health services research, 18(1), p.426.
Schoen, C., Osborn, R., How, S.K., Doty, M.M. and Peugh, J. (2008) In Chronic Condition: Experiences Of Patients With Complex Health Care Needs, In Eight Countries, 2008: Chronically ill US patients have the most negative access, coordination, and safety experiences. Health affairs, 27(Suppl1), pp.w1-w16.
United Nations Development Programme. (2020) Sustainable Development Goals. Available at https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html [Accessed 26 Aug. 2020].
World Bank. (n.d.). Taxes &Government Revenue. [online] Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/taxes-and-government-revenue
World Health Organisation. (2020) Health systems financing. Available from: https://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/financing/en/ [Accessed 26 Aug. 2020].
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