Describe the absorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in the normal healthy cat

1. Answer all parts of this question:a) Describe the absorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in the normal healthy cat.(12 marks)b) Describe the function(s) of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in the normal healthy cat.(12 marks)c) Discuss the mechanisms by which intestinal and extra-intestinal abnormalitiescan cause cobalamin deficiency in the cat. (24 marks)2. Answer all parts of this question:a) Outline the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of felinehypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and its effect on cardiacfunction. (15 marks)b) Describe the role of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)in normal cardiac function. Also describe how cTnI and n-terminal pro-BNP areaffected by cardiac and non-cardiac factors. (15 marks)c) For cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, list three (3) measurements on twodimensional(2D) and/or motion mode (M-mode) echocardiography that havebeen associated with prognosis. Briefly describe how each might affect outcome.(9 marks)d) The ratio of left atrial to aortic dimensions on a right parasternal short-axis viewis frequently used to assess volume loading of the left heart. Discuss thestrengths and weaknesses of this measurement. (9 marks)Continued over pageFeline Medicine Paper 1 Page 3 of 43. Answer both parts of this question:a) Discuss the proposed mechanisms for the aetiopathogenesis of felineinflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (24 marks)b) Describe all the features that may assist in the differentiation of a case ofgastrointestinal low-grade (small cell) alimentary lymphoma from severe IBD.(24 marks)4. Answer both parts of this question:a) Discuss the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of primary immunemediatedanaemia, with reference to the normal process by which the immunesystem recognises, processes and responds to self and non-self antigens. The useof diagrams is permitted in your answer. (33 marks)b) Briefly discuss the effects of each of the following drugs on the immune system:i. prednisolone (5 marks)ii. cyclosporine (ciclosporin) (5 marks)iii. mycophenolic acid (mycophenolate mofetil). (5 marks)Continued over pageFeline Medicine Paper 1 Page 4 of 45. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, antibody (Ab) testing and antigen (Ag)testing are widely used for the diagnosis of many feline infectious diseases. Thesetests can vary in their sensitivities, specificities and positive and negative predictivevalues.Answer all parts of this question:a) Define the terms ‘sensitivity’ and ‘specificity’. (2 marks)b) Define the terms ‘positive predictive values’ and ‘negative predictive values’.(2 marks)c) Outline the principles of real time PCR (qPCR). Include in your answer theimportance of knowing what the cycling threshold (Ct) value is. (5 marks)d) Discuss in detail the strengths and weaknesses of antibody testing, antigentesting and real time PCR (qPCR) for each of the following feline infectiousdiseases: (39 marks)i. feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)ii. feline leukaemia virus (FeLV)iii. toxoplasmosis

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