Did you find any outliers on the dependent variables that were due to errors of coding? Ifso, what and why? How would you correct an error of coding?3HINT:One of the outliers on one continuous variable clearly is a coding error. Whichone is that? What would be the best way to handle that outlier?5.How might you deal with outliers that are not due to coding errors? Explain yourreasoning.HINT:Use the information you have from your Output file from your Explore analysesto describe the outliers (e.g. how many outliers are there on each continuousvariable; do they fall above and/or below the mean). What are ways to handleoutliers on the continuous variables? Might there be some arguments againstdeleting outliers? What are these?6.Check the descriptive statistics, histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, and the tests fornormality that you obtained from your analyses (see box to check in “Plots” when usingExplore to analyze descriptive statistics of your data). Considering the skewness andkurtosis values, as well as the Shapiro-Wilk’s results (preferred for small sample sizes),did the distribution of scores on either of the dependent variables violate the assumptionof normality? How can you tell from the information you obtained from your analyses?HINTS:First, you can look at your histograms and stem-and-leaf plots to see if youobserve marked skewness or other indicators of differences between thedistribution of scores from the normal distribution.Next, you can inspect the computed values for skewness and kurtosis for yourvariables from your analyses. Report these values in your answer for thecontinuous dependent variables? Which ones are greater than +1.0? Whatdoes having a skewness or kurtosis value that is greater than +1.0 tell youabout normality? Then, discuss what having these kinds of values tell youabout the normality of the distribution of scores on that variable.Next, look at the Shapiro-Wilks’ tests of normality that you ran. Results with p< .001 or less indicate a violation of the normality assumption using this typeof evaluation.7.If in #6, you identified any distributions that violate the assumption of normality, whatare some options you might use to try to correct the distribution to get closer tonormality? (You do not need to do these steps. Just describe them.)8.Write a sample result section, discussing your data screening activity.© 2012. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved
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