If we extend research findings regarding effective parenting styles to the classroom, teachers would be well advised toa reward good behavior and ignore inappropriate behaviorb establish fair rules and high expectations and provide loving supportc insist on strict obedience with immediate punishment for infractionsd allow students to make their own decisions regarding how they should and should notUnit 213 Three of the following are examples of learned behavior. Given the textbook’s definition of learning which behavior probably does not reflect learning?a After many hours of heated debate Brain begins to modify his religious beliefsb Cara suddenly recognizes how the division 24 % 4 = 6 is related to the multiplication fact6 x 4 = 24c David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by aGerman shepherd two years agod Abigail cries when she feels sad.16 Which of the following researchers is drawing an inference about cognitive processes from her observations of behaviora Dr. Aragon finds that students who listen to an organized lecture remember more information than students who listen to an unorganized lecture she concludes that organized material promotes better learningb Dr. Cooper discovers that students remember more when new concepts are illustrated by pictures as well as being verbally described she concludes that visual imagery helps learning and memory.c Dr. Burger finds that students who learn information word for word don’t remember it for very long she concludes that requiring students to learn information verbatim isn’t an effective teaching strategy.d Dr. Delgado finds that students who listen to foreign language tapes while sleeping don’t remember what they’ve heard she concludes that being awake is necessary for learning to occur 20 Mr. Janus tells his class for tomorrow class read pages 23 to 49 in your geography book. Three of the following students are demonstrating the process of construction in their perceptions of what their teacher has said which student is not>a Christopher hears the teacher say pages 33 to 39 because the student next to him is coughing loudly Anthony thinks the teacher is saying history book Bonita doesn’t hear what the teacher says because she’s thinking about something else Dena understands the teacher even though the teacher speaks with a slight accent and Mispronounces the word geography.21 Michael has just written a short research paper that describes the events surrounding the first transatlantic telegraph cable. As he reads paper before giving it to his teacher he doesn’t notice that he has misspelled Atlantic as Atlantic on one occasion even though he knows perfectly well how the word should be spelled. Michael’s proofreading error can best be explained by considering the role in the construction of meaning.a a script b expectations assessment ambiguity 24 Distributed cognition can best be described as a a group od students thinking about a task or problem together student trying to accomplish several different task simultaneously group of students dividing up the various parts of a task that need to be doned student choosing one problem-solving strategy over other possible strategies 25 Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of distributed cognition?a Rhonda watches her favorite situation comedy while simultaneously eating an apple anddoing her homework Edie, Linda and DeWayne discuss ways they might solve a physics problem c Mark, Jason and Leanne each solve one-third of their homework problems and then share their results with the other two Reginald thinks about the various plots he might use in the short story he is writing and then eventually chooses one of them Unit 33 Which one of the following recommendations is consistent with current beliefs about transfer?a Study German so you’ll have easier time leaning Japanese next year.b Studying calculus will help you think more abstractly about the various subjects you will study in college.c Take computer programming to help you develop your analytical thinking skills.d Use your knowledge of algebra to solve this chemistry equation 5 Three of the following are accurate statements about factors that affect transfer which statement is inaccurate ?a Students are more likely to transfer what they learned when they see it as belonging to a particular academic subject area Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have studied it for a lengthy period of time Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned it in a meaningful rather than rote fashion Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned general principles rather than specific facts.6 In which one of the following situations are we most likely to find transfer from one learning task to the other?a Brianne learns how to plant corn and then learns how to prune a hedge Alice learns how to add two- digit number and then studies how to add three-digit numbers Devlin learns how to play softball and then learns how to play a card gamed Cathy learns early British history and then learns early Japanese history 7 a police officer visits Ms. Duhaime’s first- grade class one morning to talk about safety precautions at home and on the street. The student listen quietly and attentively while the officer speaks. At the end of the visit the officer and the teacher agree that the students good behavior warrants some kind of reinforcement. Given what we know about effective reinforcers at different grade levels their best choice would bea a letter home to parents describing the children’s good behavior plastic toy police badges awarded by the officerc an official-looking good behavior certificate given at the school’s award ceremony the following week d twenty minutes of free time at the end of the day 13 Considering what we know about the kinds of models people are likely to imitate we can guess that the girls in our classes will be least likely to imitate a Brianne head majorette in the school band b Anita a skillful auto mechanic Darla a graceful dancer Claudia the most popular girl in school 14 From the perspective of social cognitive theory, why might inner-city African American students learn more from an African American model grew in a ghetto than from a model of a different race or background?a Because the students will view the African American model’s behavior as being applicable to their own situation because the students are more likely to realize that the African American model has prestige because the African American model is more likely to behave in a gender-appropriate manner because the students are more likely to perceive the African American model as being competent16 Only one of the following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy which one is the best example of self-efficacy?a Carmen enjoys being with her friends Bryn swims the fastest butterfly on the swim team Amy recently got a score of 120 on her intelligence test Danielle knows she is a good singer 17 Jim has a high sense pf self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with wood. Based on this information we would predict three of the following from social cognitive theory which one of the following would we not necessarily predict.a Jim will be a bit careless when he works with wood so he will often make silly little mistakes Jim will frequently choose activities that involve working with wood Compared to Joe who has low self-efficacy Jim do a better job at woodworking tasks If Jim has difficulty at task requiring his woodworking skills he will tend to try try again until he gets it right 20 Which one of the following students clearly has a mastery goal rather than a performance goals Alice stays away from science courses because she never done very well in science Dinah doesn’t worry about making mistakes as long as she knows she making progress Boris wants the recognition that being a star football player will bring him Cal is relieved to learn he passed his English composition course 25 Which one of the following students is attributing success or failure on a geology test to an internal source and thinks the cause is unstable and controllable?a Duncan said he did well on the test because he studied hard Joe said he studied hard but failed because he is just not good in geology Jane said she failed the test because it was too difficult Emily said she did well on her test because she is smart in science Unit 4 1 Mr. Phillips wants his students to develop the ability to separate and control variables in scientific experimentation. Which one of the following instructional methods is most likely to help his students achieve this goal?a individualized assignments using computer spreadsheets b unstructured discovery learning activities small group reciprocal teaching activities d scaffolded inquiry learning activities 3 Which one of the following is the best example of an authentic in class activity a discussing reasons why world war 1 occurred putting definitions of new term in your own words listing four different kinds of sedimentary rocks designing a bridge using principles of physics Which one of the following uses of a computer in instruction is most to an authentic activity?a a computer based instructional program that teaches the various parts of the human digestive system a computer based instructional program that teaches the basics of first aid a computer simulation that allows students to conduct an experiment a computer game that promotes automaticity for basic math facts The four teachers below are assigning homework to their students which teacher is giving an assignment that’s inconsistent with general recommendations regarding the appropriate use of homework?a Mr. Needham asks his first grades to bring something from home that begins with the letter Bb Ms. Wong asks her sixth graders to make up sentences using each of their new spelling words.c Ms. Powell asks her high school algebra students to read the next two chapters in their textbook and than do the problems at the end of each chapter.d Mr. Rhodes asks his eighth grades to write the answers to a series of questions based on material they’ve been studying over the past week Three of the following are purposes that asking in class can serve which one is not a typical use of asking questions?a to decrease the extent to which students need to cognitively process classroom materials to encourage students to elaborate on classroom material to help students monitor their own comprehension of classroom materials to determine whether students understand classroom material10 Three of the following describe recommendations that the textbook offers for helping students with special needs which statement is inconsistent with the textbook’s recommendations Give students with physical disabilities any additional time they may need to complete assigned tasks When students have significant general delays in cognitive development give them explicit feedback about their behaviors When students have specific cognitive or academic difficulties teach them strategies for organizing their time more effectively When students have social or behavioral problems vary the classroom routine considerably from one day to the next Which one of the following best illustrates collective self-efficacy of teachers?a A third grade teacher and a fourth grade teacher at North Elementary School have combined their two classes into a single class sometime they team teach the entire group at other times they divide the class into smaller groups one of which is ready for more advanced work than other the teachers at South Elementary school have coordinated what they do at each grade level so that at any particular grade students master the knowledge and skills they will need in the following grade.c The English teachers at east high school have agreed on how they will teach the required freshman English class that way students will have a similar classroom experience no matter which teacher they have for coursed The teachers at west middle school confer weekly about students who they believe are at risk for academic failure and they are confident that by working together they can help these students be successful at school Which one of the following is a drawback of using essay question on a paper-pencil assessment Lengthy essay questions can limit sampling of the content domain being assessed Guessing is likely to inflate students scores considerably Reliability tends to be lower than that for recognition tasks The administration of essay questions is difficult to standardize From the textbooks perspective which one of the following is primary advantage of allowing students to use reference materials during a paper-pencil assessment students are more likely to learn material meaningfully if they know they are going to have an open book test rather than a closed book test such a procedure is less likely to lead to test anxiety than would otherwise be true students don’t have to study the material ahead of time they can simply learn it during the assessment session such a procedure better assesses students ability to apply material that they don’t necessarily need to commit to memory which one of the following illustrates the use of a rubric in a classroom assessment a in swimming test students are asked to swim one lap each of the breaststroke backstroke and crawl a math assignment presents a complex problem with several parts and asks students to break it down into at least five simpler problems Responses to a 10-point essay in history class are given 5 points for describing historical events accurately 4 point for explaining how the events are interrelated and 1 point for using complete sentences throughout the essay a science test has 30 multiple choice questions 10 alternative response questions 3 short answers questions and one essay The four students below have just received feedback about there test performance with the textbooks discussion of assessment and feedback in mind choose the student who is most likely to benefit from the feedback he or she has received Garry got his multiple choice science test back with the errors circled in red and the comment you to study harder for the next test written at the top of the page Kerrie received her math test with any incorrect answers corrected in red and with the comment you have learned how to carry in addition but are having trouble with borrowing in subtraction Jerry could not see his geography test after it was scored as his teacher plans to use the test again with next years class however he’s gotten the feedback you need to work more on the characteristics of the countries were studying Harry received his history essay test with the comment you have through knowledge of history but your discussion is vague and disorganized three of the teachers below are using strategies consistent with the textbooks recommendations regarding the use of portfolios which one is not consistent Ms. Gaudent list the criteria that she will use to evaluate students portfolio Ms. James tells each of her students which specific artifacts they should in their class portfolio Ms. Salih ask students to include at least four writing samples written at various times during the school year in order to show how they have improved over timed Ms. Shaklee asks her students to include a brief statement about each of the entries they include in their portfolio in case this helps the book I ‘am using is Educational Psychology Developing learners seventh edition
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