We would all agree that there is some level of stress in everyone’s life. The stress response may be quite similar for each of us; however, there are distinct differences in the way women and men experience and respond to stress.
In your exploration of these concepts, respond to the following:
Looking beyond the United States, do women live longer than men globally? Lifestyle differences may account for some differences in longevity and mortality rates. What are some of the differences in gender variations around the world? How do they impact gender, health, and longevity?
What are some coping strategies?
How does the social support system play a role in gender longevity? Are there gender differences in violent deaths? Validate your response with supporting research.
Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research.
Do you know that gender bias occurs in the treatment of psychological disorders? Doctors are more likely to diagnose depression in women compared to men, even when both women and men have similar scores on standardized measures of depression or present with identical symptoms. Men are also more likely (more than three times) to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder than women (Leedom, 2007).
Read the following two case studies in which the gender is not identified.
Case Study A
Client X is a thirty-year-old parent of a new child (second child). X has a history of physical and sexual abuse as a child. X earned a General Educational Development (GED) at the age of twenty and has had intermittent employment, with the longest job lasting eight months. X’s mother has a history of untreated depression. As a teenager (likely to deal with the symptoms resulting from the trauma X experienced), X began drinking and smoking marijuana. At twenty-five, X began using heroin. X has been psychiatrically hospitalized three times following a suicide attempt at the age of sixteen and recurring suicidal thoughts. X frequently cuts self as a release and sometimes cuts too deep. X is facing eviction and has limited treatment. Current diagnoses are depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and polysubstance abuse. There is no program in which X can receive comprehensive integrated treatment for both disorders. X has recently been ordered to complete an assessment at your agency and to enter and complete a batterers’ intervention program as a result of a recent domestic violence arrest in which X has been identified as the perpetrator.
Case Study B
Client Z is thirty-two years old and has a fifteen-year history of addiction, including a two-year history of crack addiction. Z has been in a variety of psychiatric and substance abuse treatment programs during the past ten years. Z’s longest clean time has been fourteen months. Z has been attending a dual-diagnosis outpatient clinic for the past nine months and going to Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings off and on for several years. Z has been clean from all substances for seven months. The following is a list of high-risk relapse factors and coping strategies identified by Z and Z’s counselor:
Z is tired and bored with “just working, staying at home and watching television, or going to NA meetings.” Recently, Z has been thinking about how much Z “misses the action of the good old days” of hanging out with old friends and thinks has not enough things to do that are interesting. Z has been referred to you for a recent drug arrest and a violation of a restraining order. Z cries often and has a history of bulimia and some type of body dimorphic risks. Z appears fixated on body size and weight and avoids social activities as a result of body discomfort.
Z is unemployed and is running out of unemployment compensation and has a sporadic employment history. Z describes current relationship as a safety net and is afraid of becoming more alone, lonely, and erratic if the partner leaves. On the basis of your inquiry, you discover that Z:
Has a history of eating disorders.
Has a long history of multiple partners and cheating on partners.
Has a history of noncompliance with medications.
Has had one prior treatment three years ago, which was initiated due to a suicide attempt; however, Z denies any current thoughts, plans, or dreams of harming self (suicidal ideation).
Denies any homicidal ideation at this time (no attendance to any self-help programs, such as eating support groups, Alcoholics Anonymous [AA], or NA).
Is at risk for homelessness.
Has no current AA or NA sponsor.
Has a limited support system.
On the basis of these two case studies, respond to the following:
Analyze the case studies and try to identify the gender in each case and possible diagnoses. Support your position with detailed facts and references to the readings.
Examine gender-related differences, gender biases, and gender inequity diagnosis concerns.
Provide the stand of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Counseling Association (ACA) on this particular topic.
Locate and evaluate the ethical suggestions of the ACA and the APA to assist your skills and ethical directions to help prevent gender bias and gender stereotyping when diagnosing clients. Describe how these ethical suggestions can be improved.
Describe whether the individuals in these case studies are homosexuals and how clinicians should interact with them in an ethical and supportive way. Support your response with the APA guidelines on this subject.
Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research.
Leedom, L. (2007, March 10). Ask Dr. Leedom: Is there a gender bias against menin the diagnosis of sociopathy? [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.lovefraud.com/blog/2007/06/08/ask-dr-leedom-is-there-a-gender-bias-against-men-in-the-diagnosis-of-sociopathy/
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