Radioactivity and Nuclear Medicine
Assignment 1 – Medical PhysicsPart 1: Radioactivity and Nuclear MedicineTask 1: Radioactivity – P1, M11) Describe in simple terms what happens when radioactive decay takes place.
To complete this activity successfully you should include diagrams and use the following terms: parent, daughter, unstable, stable, random, and include equations that illustrate examples of nuclides that decay by alpha, beta and gamma radiation) (P1)
2) The graph shows the average corrected count rate recorded per day over a 40 day period.
(i) Explain what is meant by the terms corrected count rate and half-life.
(ii) What is the value of the half life of the material?
(iii) What is the value of the decay constant?
(iv) Radioactivity is described as a Random Process. Explain what is meant by this term and how the graph demonstrates that radioactive decay is a random process. (M1)(M1)
Task 2: Nuclear Medicine – P3, P4, M2, D21. Describe how technetium 99m is produced in a Technetium Generator (You should include diagrams to aid your explanation) (P3)
2. Explain how the gamma radiation it emits is detected by the gamma camera, paying particular attention to the role of the Collimator, Scintillating Crystal, Photo cathode and Photomultiplier tubes. You should include a labelled diagram of the Gamma Camera to aid your explanation. (P4)
3. Different radiopharmaceuticals are used for different clinical investigations.
Your report must include the following information:– A brief description of the medical conditions being investigated
– Details of the Radionuclides used and the properties they have which make them suitable for your chosen investigations
– A series of annotated images showing the condition as seen under the Gamma Camera.
– An explanation of the advantages and disadvantages of using radionuclide imaging techniques for your chosen investigations from both a patients’ perspective, and from the perspective of the Clinical Care team
Part 2: Xrays and UltrasoundTask 1 (P2)
Write a short report on Ultrasound imagingYour report should include the following:
1. What is ultrasound?
2. What frequencies of ultrasound are used for medical imaging techniques?
3. How is ultrasound produced and how does the transducer work
4. Explain the principles of the pulse echo technique and how it can be used to produce an A scan, a B scan, real time imaging and M mode
Task 21) Explain how X rays are produced by a rotating anode X ray tube. You should include diagrams in your explanation (P2)
2) With reference to interactions between accelerated electrons incident on a target atom, explain the underlying physical principles behind the production of the 2 different parts of the X ray spectrum. The 2 parts of the spectrum are:
a) The Continuous Spectrumb) The Line Spectrum(D1)
3) State the 3 factors which can affect the appearance of the spectrum from an X ray tube.
Part 3: Radiotherapy and Radiation SafetyQuestions1. Briefly describe the differences between the following therapy methods :Chemotherapy, Radioactive Implants, Superficial Therapy and Megavoltage Therapy (P6)2. Explain the basic principle behind how LlNAC machine (Linear accelerator) generates X rays for Megavoltage Therapy and how its design & operation differs to a diagnostic Xray machine.3. With the aid of suitable diagrams, explain how each of the following limits the damage to healthy tissuea. multiple beamsb. rotational beamsc. wedgesd. compensators (P6)
4. a. Explain the effects of ionising radiation on cells and tissue in malignant tumours and the importance of treatment planning to reduce damage to healthy tissue
b. In addition, for a particular department outline the measures that are taken to limit over exposure to ionising radiation for the patient and all staff(M4)5. Different treatment methods as discussed in task 1 can be used for treating different forms of Cancer.
– An explanation of the advantages of using the preferred treatment method for your chosen Cancer.
– A discussion as to whether each of the remain treatment methods in task 1 could be used for treating your chosen Cancer
Part 4: MRIQuestions1. With reference to the relevant magnetic fields and proton behaviour, Create a block diagram of the MRI process. (P5)
2. Describe and explain using images/diagrams:b) The purpose of the Gradient Coilsc) The purpose of the Radio Frequency coils(P5)
3. State 3 the factors that influence the intensity of the MRI signal. For each factor, explain the effect that it has on the MRI signal strength and hence intensity on an image.(M3)
4. Obtain 2 high-quality images of a conventional X ray and an MRI image for the same either the abdomen, head, spine or a joint.
Compare and evaluate the appearance of bone and soft tissue for both imaging techniques. You should make reference to the contrast between tissue types and resolution for the 2 images selected(D3)
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